Would it be possible (at least in theory) to heat a small building using a heat pump, but using no energy to run the pump? It seems unlikely, but why not? I am familiar with the laws of thermodynamics. I know we are not supposed to be able to get work from a non-spontaneous process, like a heat pump. Say you used a Stirling engine to start the process. You could easily get five or ten times more thermal energy out than the energy used. Then you could use some of that energy to run the pump leaving the rest to heat the building. What am I missing here? This is a question about physics theory, not about engineering.

Professor Dahmen received her *Vordiplom* in physics from the Universität Bonn, Germany, in 1989, and her Ph.D in physics from Cornell in 1995. Before joining the faculty at Illinois in 1999, she was a Junior Fellow at Harvard University.

She has wide-ranging interests in "soft" condensed matter physics, including nonequilibrium dynamical systems, hysteresis, avalanches, earthquakes, population biology, and disorder-induced critical behavior.

Generally, I have wide ranging interests in non-equilibrium dynamical systems, including pattern formations in homogeneous systems and inhomogeneous systems with quenched disorder. There are new experiments showing interesting non-equilibrium phenomena, that are only being studied recently. I am also interested in other aspects of condensed matter physics and mathematical physics, and in areas of biophysics and geophysics, where methods of condensed matter physics can be fruitfully applied.

In physical systems consisting of a large number of atoms or molecules statistical fluctuations usually become small. The signals we perceive are mostly averages over the complex microscopic behavior of the system. Equilibrium properties, for example, are given by ensemble averages that obey simple thermodynamical, hydrodynamical and statistical mechanical laws. Systems driven far from equilibrium, can also be usefully described by simple laws on long length scales, where local fluctuations in the amount of disorder are averaged out. There has been much progress made recently in the study of collective behavior in systems ranging from advancing domain walls in magnets to event size distributions in earthquakes. The methods applied include ideas from dynamical systems and chaos, critical phenomena, hydrodynamics and disordered systems theory.

**Unifying theory of universal “quake” statistics in plasticity: from nanocrystals to earthquakes**

(PRL 2009, 2010, 2011, Nature Physics 2011, Nature Communications 2011, Advanced Functional Materials 2012, and submitted to Nature, 2012).
Since my Sabbatical in 2007 we have pursued a new direction of research, studying slip avalanches and plasticity in sheared solids, ranging from sheared nano-crystals and micro-crystals, and dislocation dynamics, to sheared granular materials, to amorphous materials, to earthquakes. We have been developing simple analytical models to describe the universal (i.e. detail-independent) aspects of the slip avalanche statistics, acoustic emission, stress strain curves, and other properties of these systems. These theoretical predictions are currently leading ahead of experiments, motivating the design of new experiments and data analysis methods.
Our results are receiving much attention from experimentalists, theorists, materials scientists, mechanical engineers, geophysicsists, applied mathematicians, and biophysicsists, as evidenced by recent invited lectures at the annual meetings of various professional societies, such as the American Physical Society, the Americal Geophysical Union, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), the Materials Research Society, the Aspen Center of Physics, the Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, and the Mathematical Geophysics conference. About 12 different experimental groups (nationally and internationally) are currently setting up and running experiments to test our results. Initial experimental results confirm our predictions. In collaboration with groups at Purdue and Harvard we are also applying related ideas to scaling behavior of stripes in high Tc Superconductors. We have also contributed to experiments in biophysics through collaborations with the CPLC, the IGB, and with outside groups, focusing on avalanches in neural networks, stochastic gene-expression, and the statistics of bacterial motion in inhomogeneous environments.
Some of our most recent studies are relevant for deformation studies of bulk metallic glasses, magnesium and twin boundary dynamics, high entropy alloys, colloids, granular materials, cement, and bone. Each of these materials has many applications and it is important to gain an understanding of their deformation properties. We expect that there will be ample funding opportunities for future research in these directions. Below we also list brief summmaries of additional research projects on other topics.

**Hysteresis and Hierarchie***s***: Dynamics of Disorder Driven First Order Phase Transformations**

We have discovered a critical point in the behavior of hysteretic systems. Adding disorder to the system, we find a second order transition from hysteresis loops with a macroscopic jump or burst (roughly as seen in the supercooling of liquids) to smoothly varying hysteresis loops (as seen in most magnets). We study the critical point in the nonequilibrium zero temperature random field Ising model using mean field theory, renormalization group techniques, and numerical simulations in 2, 3, 4, and 5 dimensions.

* Hysteresis, Avalanches, and the Breakdown of Hyperscaling: Critical Exponents in 6-e Dimensions*,

We have performed a

**Statistics of Earthquakes in Simple Models of Heterogeneous Faults**

Observations have shown that earthquakes exhibit apparently universal scaling of the rupture size distributions and related quantities. We have studied simple models for ruptures along a heterogeneous earthquake fault zone, focusing on the interplay between the roles of disorder and dynamical effects. A class of models were found to operate naturally at a critical point whose properties yield power law scaling of earthquake statistics.

**Phase Diagram for the Statistics of Earthquakes in a Mean-Field Model of Heterogeneous Faults: Switching from Gutenberg¨CRichter to Characteristic Earthquake Distribution and Back**

The results from the earthquake project, above, for weak dynamical effects are extended to strong dynamical effects in mean-field theory, which can be treated analytically. A two-parameter phase diagram is found, spanned by the amplitude of dynamical weakening effects *e* and the normal distance *L* of the driving forces from the fault. For small *e* and small *L,* the fault produces Gutenberg* ¨C*Richter type power law statistics with an exponential cutoff, while large

**Effects of Quenched Disorder in Population Biology**

We study a reaction-diffusion model for population growth of bacteria in a spacially inhomogeneous environment (simulating for example spatial fluctuations in the density of nutrients or toxins, or an inhomogeneous illumination pattern projected onto, e.g., photosynthetic bacteria). Specifically, we have used the Fisher equation, which describes diffusive spreading, growth and decay of a scalar density (of species).

**Results in the Presence of a Drift Term**

Recent work by David Nelson and Nadav Schnerb (preprint 1997) shows that if convection is added to the problem above (without discreteness), a delocalization transition can be seen as a function of drift velocity: If at zero velocity the bacteria are localized in separated oases of nutrients, the addition of a drift term with high enough velocity can delocalize the bacteria by enabling them to move through the desert from oasis to oasis.

**Fisher Waves in Random Media**

In the of limit positive, uniform, growth rate, in the absence of a drift term, the Fisher equation has wave (soliton) solutions, that describe the invasion of a front of high bacteria concentration into a region of high nutrient concentration. Interesting questions arise concerning the effect of spatial fluctuations in the nutrient concentration on the shape of the wave front and its mode of propagation.

Depinning of a domain wall in the 2d random field Ising model, We study the behavior of a driven domain wall in the two--dimensional random--field Ising model closely above the depinning threshold, at zero temperature. (This could correspond for example to a fluid invading a 2d porous medium). It is found that not only for large, but even for very weak disorder, the domain wall propagates through the system in a percolative fashion. A scaling theory in terms of the disorder strength and the magnetic field strength is being worked out, which gives exact values for most exponents and would suggest that two is the lower critical dimension of the interface depinning transition with a correlation length scaling exponentially as R ˇú 0.

**Nonequilibrium Transport**

In a recently started collaboration with Nadav Shnerb, we are studying interesting experimental results on nonequilibrium transport and slow relaxation in hopping conductivity. The hope is that a very simple model may explain some of the observed features.

- Fellow, American Physical Society, March 2014
- Fellow, Center for Advanced Study, Fall 2014
- Xerox Senior Faculty Research Award, 2011
- Beckman Fellow, Center for Advanced Study, 2001
- Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow, 2001

- Braden Brinkman, Michael LeBlanc, Yehuda Ben-Zion, Jonathan T. Uhl, and Karin A. Dahmen, Probing failure susceptibilities of earthquake faults using small-quake tidal correlations, Nature Communications 6, 6157 (2015), DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7157
- R. Maass, M. Wraith, J.T. Uhl, J.R. Greer, and K.A. Dahmen, Slip statistics of dislocation avalanches under different loading modes, Physical Review E 91, 042403 (2015).
- E.W. Carlson, Shuo Liu, B. Phillabaum, K.A. Dahmen, Decoding Spatial Complexity in Strongly Correlated Electronic Systems, J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. DOI 10.1007/s10948-014-2898-0 (2015)
- Reza Vafabakhsh, Kiran Kondabagil, Tyler Earnest, Kyung Suk Lee, Zhihong Zhang, Li Dai, Karin A. Dahmen ,Venigalla B. Rao, Taekjip Ha, Single Molecule Packaging Initiation in Real-time by a Viral DNA Packaging Machine from Bacteriophage T4, PNAS 2014 : 1407235111v1-201407235.
- J. Antonaglia, X. Xie, Z. Tang, C.-W. Tsai, J.W. Qiao, Y. Zhang, M.O. Laktionova, E.D. Tabachnikova, R. Carroll, J.W. Yeh, O.N. Senkov, M.C. Gao,9, J.T. Uhl, P.K. Liaw, and K.A. Dahmen, Temperature effects on deformation and serration behavior in High Entropy Alloys (HEAs), JOM 66, 2002-2008 (2014).
- S.Y. Chen, X. Yang, K.A. Dahmen, P.K. Liaw, Yong Zhang, Microstructure and Serration Behaviors of AlxNbTiMoV High Entropy Alloys, Entropy (High Entropy Alloys Special Issue), Entropy 16, 870-884 (2014).
- Ekhard K.H. Salje and Karin A. Dahmen, Crackling Noise in Disordered Materials, Annual Reviews of Condensed Matter Physics, Vol. 5: 233-254 (2014).
- James Antonaglia, Wendelin J. Wright, Xiaojun Gu, Rachel R. Byer, Todd C. Hufnagel, Michael LeBlanc, Jonathan T. Uhl, and Karin A. Dahmen, Bulk Metallic Glasses Deform via Slip Avalanches, Physical Review Letters 112, 155501 (2014), selected as Editors' Suggestion.
- S.L. Tomarken, D.M. Silevitch, G. Aeppli, Braden A.W. Brinkman, Karin A. Dahmen, T.F. Rosenbaum, Reversible Disorder in a Room Temperature Ferromagnet. (Accepted for Publication in Advanced Functional Materials (2014)).
- J. Antonaglia, X.Xie, M. Wraith, J.Qiao, Y. Zhang, P.K. Liaw, J.T. Uhl, and K.A. Dahmen, Tuned Critical Avalanche Scaling in Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nature Scientific Reports 4, 4382 (2014).
- Yong Zhang, Ting Ting Zuo, Zhi Tang, Michael C. Gao, Karin A. Dahmen, Peter K. Liaw, Zhao Ping Lu, Microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys, Progress in Materials Science 61, 1-93 (2014).
- Y.C. Zohar, S. Yohelis, Yossi Paltiel, G. Jung, Karin Dahmen. Nonequilibrium crackling charge transfer in 2-D molecular layers. 2013 22nd International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF), p 4 pp. (2013).
- Y. C. Zohar, S. Yochelis, K.A. Dahmen, Y. Paltiel, G. Jung. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays. Nature Scientific Reports 3, 1845 (2013).
- G. Tsekenis, J. T. Uhl, N. Goldenfeld and K. A. Dahmen, Karin A. Determination of the universality class of crystal plasticity Europhysics Letters, 101 36003 (2013).
- Michael LeBlanc, Luiza Angheluta, Karin A. Dahmen, Nigel Goldenfeld. Universal fluctuations and extreme statistics of avalanches near the depinning transition. Physical Review E 87, 022126 (2013).
- T. Earnest, E. Roberts, M. Assaf, K. A. Dahmen, Z. Luthey-Schulten. DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch. Phys. Biol. 10, 026002 (2013)
- M. L. Gibiansky, W. Hu, K.A. Dahmen, W. Shi, and G.C.L. Wong. Earthquake-like dynamics in Myxococcus xanthus social motility, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 2330 (2013)
- B. Phillabaum, E. Carlson, and K. A. Dahmen. Spatial complexity due to bulk electronic nematicity in superconducting Dy-Bi2212, Nature Communications 3, 915 (2012).
- M. LeBlanc, L. Angheluta, K. Dahmen, and N. Goldenfeld. Distribution of maximum velocities in avalanches near the depinning transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 105702 (2012).
- N. Friedman, A. T. Jennings, G. Tsekenis, J.-Y. Kim, J. T. Uhl, J. R. Greer, and K. A. Dahmen. Statistics of dislocation slip-avalanches in nano-sized single crystals show tuned critical behavior predicted by a simple mean field model, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095507 (2012).
- J.-Y. Kim, X. Gu, M. Wraith, J. T. Uhl, K. A. Dahmen, and J. R. Greer. Suppression of catastrophic failure in metallic glass-polyisoprene nanolaminate containing nanopillars. Advanced Functional Materials 22, 1972-1980 (2012).
- N. Friedman, S. Ito, B.A.W. Brinkman, L. DeVille, K. Dahmen, J. Beggs, and T. Butler. Universal critical dynamics in high resolution neuronal avalanche data. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 208102 (2012).
- K. Dahmen, T. Halsey, W. Losert, et al. Introduction: Eighth annual gallery of nonlinear images (Dallas, Texas 2011), Chaos 21, 041101 (2011).
- C. Liu, M. C. McKinney, Y. H. Chen, T. M. Earnest, X. Shi, L. J. Lin, Y. Ishino, K. A. Dahmen, I.K.O. Cann, and T. Ha. Reverse-chaperoning activity of an AAA+ protein. Biophys. J. 100, 1344-1352 Pubmed ID: 21354408 (2011).
- K. A. Dahmen, Y. Ben-Zion, and J. T. Uhl. A simple analytic theory for the statistics of avalanches in sheared granular materials. Nature Physics 7, 554-557 (2011).
- G. Tskenis, N. Goldenfeld, and K. A. Dahmen, Dislocations jam at any density. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 105501 (2011).
- E. W. Carlson and K. A. Dahmen. Using disorder to detect locally ordered electron nematics via hysteresis. Nature Communications 2, 379 (2011).
- Y. Ben-Zion, K. A. Dahmen, and J. T. Uhl. A unifying phase diagram for the dynamics of sheared solids and granular materials. Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2221-2237 (2011).
- O. Hovorka, R. F. L. Evans, R. W. Chantrell, Y. Liu, K. A. Dahmen, and A. Berger. Validation of Delta H(M, Delta M)-technique for identification of switching field distributions in the presence of thermal relaxation. J. Appl. Phys. 108, 123901 (2010).
- Y. L. Loh, E. W. Carlson, and K. A. Dahmen. Noise predictions for STM in systems with local electron nematic order. Phys. Rev. B 81, 224207 (2010).
- Y. Liu, J. Park, K. A. Dahmen, Y. R. Chemla, and T. Ha. A comparative study of multivariate and univariate hidden Markov modelings in time-binned single-molecule FRET data analysis. J. of Phys. Chem. B 114:16, 5386-5403 (2010).
- P. Y. Chan, G. Tsekenis, J. Dantzig, K. Dahmen, and N. Goldenfeld. Plasticity and dislocation dynamics in a phase field crystal model. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 015502 (2010).
- Y. L. Loh, E. W. Carlson, and K. A. Dahmen. Noise predictions for STM in systems with local electron nematic order. Phys. Rev. B 81, 224207/1-8 (2010).
- K. A. Dahmen and Y. Ben-Zion. The physics of jerky motion in slowly driven magnetic and earthquake fault systems. Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Eds.: M.C. Marchetti and R. Meyers, Springer (2009).
- R. A. White, Y. Liu, and K. A. Dahmen. Thermal effects on crackling noise. Europhys. Lett. 86, 50001 (2009).
- Y. Liu and K. A. Dahmen. Random field Ising model in and out of equilibrium. Europhys. Lett. 86, 56003. This article was selected as an "Editor's Choice article" (2009).
- Y. Liu and K. A. Dahmen. Unexpected universality in static and dynamic avalanches. Phys. Rev. E, 79,061124 (2009).
- K. A. Dahmen, Y. Ben-Zion and J. T. Uhl. Micromechanical model for deformation in solids with universal predictions for stress strain curves and slip avalances. Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 175501 (2009).
- A. R. Missel, and K. A. Dahmen. Hopping transport in hostile reaction-diffusion systems. Phys. Rev. E 79, 021126 (2009).
- Y. Liu and K. A. Dahmen. No-passing rule in the ground state evolution of the random-field Ising model. Phys. Rev. E 76, 031106 (2007).
- E. Carlson, K. A. Dahmen, E. H. Fradkin, and S. Kivelson. Hysteresis and noise from electronic nematicity in high temperature superconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097003-1-4 (2006).
- A. Mehta, K. A. Dahmen, and Y. Ben-Zion. Universal mean-moment rate profiles of earthquake ruptures. Phys. Rev. E 73, 056104-1-8 (2006).
- A. Berger, D. Margulies, H. Do, A. Ktena, and K. Dahmen. Lateral correlation length of magnetization reversal in thin magnetic films. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 10K109/1-3 (2005).
- J. H. Carpenter, K. A. Dahmen, A. C. Mills, M. B. Weissman, A. Berger, and O. Hellwig. History-induced critical behavior in disordered systems. Phys. Rev. B 72, 052410/1-4 (2005).
- K. A. Dahmen. Nonlinear dynamics: Universal clues in noisy skews. Nature Physics 1, 13-14 (2005).
- R. A. White and K. A. Dahmen. Driving rate effects on crackling noise. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085702-1-4 (2003).
- J. H. Carpenter and K. A. Dahmen. Barkhausen noise and critical scaling in the demagnetization curve. Phys. Rev. B 67 [Rapid Commun.], 020412-1-4 (2003).
- A. P. Mehta, A. C. Mills, K. A. Dahmen, and J. P. Sethna. Universal pulse shape scaling function and exponents: Critical test for avalanche models applied to Barkhausen noise. Phys. Rev. E 65, 046139-1-6 (2002).
- M. C. Marchetti and K. A. Dahmen. Hysteresis in driven disordered systems: From plastic depinning to magnets. Phys. Rev. B 66, 214201-1-6 (2002).
- A. Travesset, R. A. White, and K. A. Dahmen. Crackling noise, power spectra, and disorder-induced critical scaling. Phys. Rev. B 66, 024430-1-11 (2002).
- J. P. Sethna, K. A. Dahmen, and C. R. Myers. Crackling noise. Nature 410, 242-250 (2001).
- K. A. Dahmen, J. P. Sethna, M. C. Kuntz, and O. Perkovic. Hysteresis and avalanches: phase transitions and critical phenomena in driven disordered systems. J. Magn. & Magn. Mater. 226, 1287-1292 (2001).
- A. Berger, A. Inomata, J. S. Jiang, J. E. Pearson, S. D. Bader, and K. A. Dahmen. Disorder-driven hysteresis-loop criticality in Co/CoO films. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7466-7468 (2001).
- J. H. Carpenter, K. A. Dahmen, J. P. Sethna, G. Friedman, S. Loverde, and A. Vanderveld. Subloops, Barkhausen noise, and disorder induced critical behavior. J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6799-6801 (2001).
- K. A. Dahmen, D. R. Nelson, and N. M. Shnerb. Life and death near a windy oasis. J. Math. Biology 41, 1-23 (2000).
- O. Perkovi'c, K. A. Dahmen, and J. P. Sethna. Disorder-induced critical phenomena in hysteresis: Numerical scaling in three and higher dimensions. Phys. Rev. B 59, 6106-6119 (1999).
- Y. Ben-Zion, K. A. Dahmen, V. Lyakhovsky, D. Ertas, and A. Agnon. Self driven mode switching of earthquake activity on a fault system. Earth & Planetary Sci. Lett. 172, 11-21 (1999).
- M. Kuntz, O. Perkovi'c, K. A. Dahmen, B. W. Roberts, and J. P. Sethna. Hysteresis, avalanches, and noise. Comput. Sci. & Eng. 1, 73-81 (1999).
- K. A. Dahmen, D. Ertas, and B.-Z. Yehuda . Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic earthquake behavior in a simple mean-field model of heterogeneous faults. Phys. Rev. E 58, 1494-1501 (1998).
- B. Drossel and K. A. Dahmen. Depinning of a domain wall in the 2d randomĂ˘â‚¬â€śfield Ising model. Eur. Phys. J. B 3, 485 (1998).
- D. S. Fisher, K. A. Dahmen, S. Ramanathan, and Y. Ben-Zion. Statistics of earthquakes in simple models of heterogeneous faults. Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4885-4888 (1997).
- K. A. Dahmen and J. P. Sethna. Hysteresis, avalanches, and disorder induced critical scaling: A renormalization group approach. Phys. Rev. B 53, 14872-14905 (1996).
- O. Perkovi'c, K. A. Dahmen, and J. P. Sethna. Avalanches, Barkhausen noise, and plain old criticality. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4528 (1995).
- J. P. Sethna, K. Dahmen, S. Kartha, J. A. Krumhansl, O. Perkovic, B. Roberts, and J. Shore. (Reply) Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 947 (1994).
- K. A. Dahmen, S. Kartha, J. A. Krumhansl, B. W. Roberts, J. P. Sethna, and J. D. Shore. Disorder-driven first-order phase transformations: A model for hysteresis. J. Appl. Phys. 75, 5946 (1994).
- K. A. Dahmen and J. P. Sethna. Hysteresis loop critical exponents in 6-Îµ dimensions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3222-3225. (1993).
- J. P. Sethna, K. A. Dahmen, S. Kartha, J. A. Krumhansl, B. W. Roberts, and J. D. Shore. Hysteresis and hierarchies: Dynamics of disorder driven first order phase transformations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3347-3350 (1993).

**Office**

2127 Engineering Sciences Building

**Phone**

217.244.8873

**Fax**

217.333.9819

**Email**

dahmen@illinois.edu

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