Capturing light in a waveguide array: Confined, insensitive light could improve lasers, solar cells
Eberly College of Science
“Photonic technology involves the generation, transmission, and manipulation of light and it is used ubiquitously across industries,” said Mikael Rechtsman, the Downsbrough Early Career Assistant Professor of Physics at Penn State and the leader of the research team. “It underlies the fiber optic network that forms the skeleton of the internet, solar cells used in the generation of sustainable energy, and high-power lasers used in manufacturing, among many other applications. Finding a way to confine and manipulate light so that it is insensitive to defects could have a huge impact on this technology.”
“The light becomes insensitive because of the phenomenon of ‘topological protection’,” said Rechtsman. “This concept has been used extensively in the context of solid-state electronic physics. The waveguide structure is a photonic analogue of the so-called ‘topological crystalline insulators,’ and this form of topological protection can potentially be used across a range of photonic devices, including in nano-scale lasers, specialized nonlinear optical fibers, and for robustly and precisely coupling between photons and electrons for manipulating quantum information.”
Confining light in this way could make many photonic devices both more efficient and cheaper to produce and more efficient. Beyond that, this is an example of the potentially cross-disciplinary—uniting photonics and solid-state electronics—use of topological protection and demonstrates the broad applicability of this phenomenon beyond its conception in electronic solid-state physics.
“In photonics, it is extremely important to be able to trap light and confine it to very small spaces,” said Rechtsman. “It compresses the maximum amount of optical power into the smallest area or volume inside a material, making it interact more strongly with the material, and thus it is more efficient at whatever it is meant to do. A major difficulty with doing this has been that strong confinement brings with it extreme sensitivity to any imperfections in the material, which can often either inhibit efficiency or make the device very expensive to fabricate. Our results suggest that we can overcome this difficulty.”
In addition to Rechtsman, the research team includes Jiho Noh and Matthew J. Collins at Penn State, Wladimir A. Benalcazar and Taylor L. Hughes at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Sheng Huang and Kevin Chen at the University of Pittsburgh. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Penn State Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigators Program.