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Cheaper and more efficient photonic devices, such as lasers, optical fibers, and other light sources, may be possible with confined light that is unaffected by imperfections in the material that confines it, according to new research. A team of physicists from Penn State, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Illinois have demonstrated in a proof-of-concept experiment that they can contain light in such a way that makes it highly insensitive to defects that might be present in a material. The results of the research appear online on June 4, 2018 in the journal Nature Photonics.

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Experiments that measure the lifetime of neutrons reveal a perplexing and unresolved discrepancy. While this lifetime has been measured to a precision within 1 percent using different techniques, apparent conflicts in the measurements offer the exciting possibility of learning about as-yet undiscovered physics.

Now, a team led by scientists in the Nuclear Science Division at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has enlisted powerful supercomputers to calculate a quantity known as the “nucleon axial coupling,” or gA—which is central to our understanding of a neutron’s lifetimewith an unprecedented precision. Their method offers a clear path to further improvements that may help to resolve the experimental discrepancy.

Illinois Physics alumnus Chia Cheng “Jason” Chang is lead author on the paper. Chang received his bachelor’s degree in 2008 and his doctoral degree in 2015, both from the Department of Physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Chmpaign. Chang’s doctoral adviser at Illinois was Professor Aida El-Khadra. These results were achieved while Chang was a postdoctoral researcher in Berkeley Lab’s Nuclear Science Division. Chang currently holds an appointment as a research scientist at the Interdisciplinary Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences Program (iTHEMS) of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan.

  • Research
  • Condensed Matter Theory

We analyze the interplay between a d-wave uniform superconducting and a pair-density-wave (PDW) order parameter in the neighborhood of a vortex. We develop a phenomenological nonlinear sigma model, solve the saddle-point equation for the order-parameter configuration, and compute the resulting local density of states in the vortex halo. The intertwining of the two superconducting orders leads to a charge density modulation with the same periodicity as the PDW, which is twice the period of the charge density wave that arises as a second harmonic of the PDW itself. We discuss key features of the charge density modulation that can be directly compared with recent results from scanning tunneling microscopy and speculate on the role PDW order may play in the global phase diagram of the hole-doped cuprates.

  • Research
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Now, a novel sample-growing technique developed at the U. of I. has overcome these obstacles. Developed by physics professor James Eckstein in collaboration with physics professor Tai-Chang Chiang, the new “flip-chip” TI/SC sample-growing technique allowed the scientists to produce layered thin-films of the well-studied TI bismuth selenide on top of the prototypical SC niobium—despite their incompatible crystalline lattice structures and the highly reactive nature of niobium.

These two materials taken together are ideal for probing fundamental aspects of the TI/SC physics, according to Chiang: “This is arguably the simplest example of a TI/SC in terms of the electronic and chemical structures. And the SC we used has the highest transition temperature among all elements in the periodic table, which makes the physics more accessible. This is really ideal; it provides a simpler, more accessible basis for exploring the basics of topological superconductivity,” Chiang comments.

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Dark Matter, a Physics Illinois video

Dark Matter, a Physics Illinois video

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In the first science-based escape room, it's up to you and your team to save the free world from evil forces plotting its destruction, and you have precisely 60 minutes to do it. You must find out what happened to Professor Schrödenberg, a University of Illinois physicist who disappeared after developing a top-secret quantum computer. The previous groups of special agents assigned to the case disappeared while investigating the very room in which you now find yourself locked up, Schrödenberg's secret lab.

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Two questions,Is there any real proof for evolution? Is their any proof that the world is millions of years old? I think carbon dating is our main method for estimating an objests age but since we cant trak the amount of carbon in the air for more than 4000 years back how do scientists use it? Also scientists say that the grand canyon was carved over a really long time, but after the erruption of Mount Mkinley, a canyon a forth the size of the grand canyon in only a few hours. With I might add the ssame type of rock layers.

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